HowTo:Your Guide to Results Based Monitoring & Evaluation

The Africa Community of Practice (AfCoP) has developed these guidelines on Results Based Monitoring and Evaluation (RBM&E) so that it lives up to its mandate and mission of promoting experience sharing and learning among its members. Through the guidelines AfCoP also intends to complement the efforts of development practitioners among AfCoP member countries, who have the task of monitoring and evaluating development activities within their various portfolios. The guidelines also target AfCoP members who are keen on implementing RBM&E but do not know what it is and how to go about it.


Finally, the document presents information on efforts by Kenya’s Public Service in introducing RBM&E in its area of operation.



The guidelines on RBM&E use the Results Chain (depicted) as a point of departure; it is the foundation of Results based Management (RBM), from which the RBM&E is modeled. RBM is an approach that focuses on the achievement of planned goals and objectives to realize results that make a difference among the target group.

The Results Chain is useful as a starting point because it identifies the different stages along the path towards the realization of the results; how these relate to and interact with each other and subsequently how they are monitored and evaluated.


The guidelines on RBM&E are premised on the fact that the public service exists to create a sustainable environment that enables state and non-state players to drive the development agenda of a country. Many (M&E) initiatives are implemented within various projects/programmes; however these have tended to focus more on the after the fact processes of the results chain (also known as traditional M&E rather than on the results. A distinction between the two is provided later on in these guidelines.


 The guidelines are based on a ten-step model by Moving From Concept to Action, Asian Experiences on Managing for Development Results (2009), quoting Jusek and Rist, 2004, acclaimed worldwide as essential in the development of RBM&E. (there is no need to reinvent the wheel); however, these need to be customized to the specific contexts, systems and frameworks, including AfCoP countries and the National Chapters.


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Comment by Claude Kakule on March 23, 2012 at 3:35pm

Dear Gemma

Thanks a lot for sharing these guidelines.

There are now a lot of publications on this topic. But I still have the impression that the leadership dimension in managing for development results is, in many cases, missing. The UN experience since the 1990s has shown that a solid base of three pillars is needed to successfully build a Managing for Results organization that are: governance, strategic management, and an enabling culture. Therefore, to successfully develop and institutionalize the Managing for Results (MfR) culture, it requires dedication, vision and creativity of leaders at all levels of the organization. This is due to the nature of MfDR concept itself. Indeed, the concept of MfDR draws on the theories of development change and change management.

Therefore, the role of a leader is to set a direction, work out a road map, and make sure that the stakeholders are ready to follow her. This requires the leader to own both technical skills and distinctive behaviors, beliefs and attitudes that can assist her to inspiring others to excel and achieve great results.

Also, as you know, none results-based  M&E steps and tools is easy to put into practice, and none can be realized without emotionally committed individuals willing to spend time. It requires commitment, energy, political and social capital to change entrenched systems, behaviours, attitudes and beliefs. This needs a transformational leader that can shape a shared vision of the future, and improve the overall organization’s performance.

I would be happy if someone over there can share with me some materials that try to expand on this issue of integrating the leadership dimension in the internationally recognized World Bank Ten-step model of building and sustaining Results-based M&E systems.

Best regards




Comment by Sheka Bangura on February 21, 2012 at 2:12pm

Dear Gemma Mbaya,


Thanks for posting those useful tips on RBM&E. I have been following up with the Kenyan efforts at reforming the public service for better results. RBM&E is about getting attitudes in the public service right towards a culture of results. Your guidelines on this are very clear in terms of what should be done, but the task has been the translation of this nice theory into practice  (I think Jeffrey's question relates to this). How do we get work ethos right for the most critical engine in service delivery--ie. the public workforce or civil service--which could be indifferent and less enthusiastic sometimes because of poor-incentive argument, etc. How do we ensure a lean and manageable public workforce that could easily be incentivised and walked through RBM&E values?


Kenya has been successful along its reform efforts to retrench a proportion of its work force with followup action on the livelihoods of those affected. That was laudable, and worth emulating--a major beggining in providing some fiscal space for government to manage a workforce toward results. The biggest problem Sierra Leone, my country, has had is to implement a retrenchment plan for workers bloating the civil service at the bottom--the accompanying package was not been there and there was fear of social unrest if it was implemented. Yet we need to start from there to be able to financially manage a workforce with reward system to entice them towards inculcating RBM&E values. As it is now, adequate morale booster does not seem to be in sight for civil servants and may be difficult to implement these nice values. What do you recommend further?


Let's continue the debate.




Comment by Winnie Sinde Mulongo- Luhana on February 20, 2012 at 8:02am

Thanks Gemma, I am sure this is very useful reference material.  I will review and provide any necessary comments. We certainly need customised M&E materials

Best regards

Comment by Abiyot Assefa on February 20, 2012 at 2:17am

thanks for you invitation. 

i am nutting idea about RBM and E so you should help me first bu sending to any related boos what am reading and than we are communicating on the issue detail


Comment by Sulleiman Adediran on February 17, 2012 at 9:20am

This is very useful material...and it is a MUST to have by all development practioners

Comment by Jeffrey Douglas Tshabalala on February 17, 2012 at 1:59am

I have a quick question to Gemma. Given what we now know about managing for results could you share how management practices have changed, if they have, to ensure consistency between good intentions towards results and real change. I ask this question from the realisation that without change in management and institutional practices; managing for results remains in "results based documents". What is your experience.

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